Stephen Pauli is with Bayer Material Science in Baytown, Texas. This article first appeared in its original form at the 2003 IEEE/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Committee Conference. The IEEE Industrial Application Solutions published this paper in the Volume 11, Issue 2 in 2005 and granted permission for this posting. The paper is a guide to specifying, justifying, and installing substation monitoring and control systems based on Bayer's experience. Between 1996 and 1999, a large chemical firm made US$1 billion in capital investments, adding production capacity and doubling the site load to 220 MW. This growth strained the capacity of critical substations to carry loads had its companion transformer failed(in a typical main-tie-main arrangement). In parallel to a year 2000 cogeneration agreement, this firm funded a US$13 million project to improve the electrical distribution system infrastructure. This project installed a third 138-kV yard, a 138 kV/34.5 kV 2 × 64 MVA substation, and a satellite 2 × 34 MVA 13.8 kV substation.
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